|I love glitter. Okay, let me rephrase that. I love everything sparkly: glitter, jewelry, costumes, Christmas lights… I love it all. I go just nuts over something with sparkles as does my ten year old cousin. (At least I have someone to play dress up with. ) I have more beads, baubles and shiny things than what I know what to do with. I just keeping adding more to my collection. (My sister akins me to a crow.) I wanted to make a transparent soap that brings out the little girl in me that giggles and twirls around the kitchen in delight. Let’s head to the kitchen for giggles and glitter that we dreamed of as children. We can even have a tea party afterwards! How does that sound?
This soap was originally created by some goofing around in the kitchen. I was playing around with mixing different colors of the Oil Soluble Lip Balm Colors in melt and pour. I got overly excited and added one too many colors. The result was this rich plum/brown color that I just loved. I added some glitter to make it “shine” and Plumberry Spice Fragrance Oil. I love it when playing around in the kitchen results in more inspiration. Don’t be afraid to play. It has amazing results!
Collect Needed Materials:
Melt the soap gently until liquid. Stir in Lip Balm Color, Fragrance Oil and Glitter. (If the color came in seeds like apple seeds, I used 2 seeds of Coral, 1 seed of Yellow, 1.5 seeds of Blue and 3 seeds of Ruby.) Stir until soap is cooler in temperature. Pour into molds. Allow to cool until solid. Remove soap from molds. Cut and enjoy!
Last weekend, I found myself trying to explain EXACTLY what the difference between soap and detergent was. Wow! That was a lot harder to answer than I thought it was. My original thought was that while a soap and detergent may have a bar or liquid appearance, they are different due to the ingredients.
I went looking for answers and I began to feel as though I had just opened a can of worms that would have kept many fishermen happy!
To start at the beginning, what is the legal definition of soap? According to the FDA, soap is a product in which most of the nonvolatile matter consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and whose detergent properties are due to these alkali-fatty acid compounds. This definition was written for the purposes of excluding soap from being regulated as a cosmetic.
To understand this definition a little more, what is an alkali salt of fatty acids? A good example of an alkali would be Potassium or Sodium Hydroxides. These are considered alkaline or basic. To be classified as such, these items must have a pH that is greater than 7. We need these alkalis to convert our oils to soap. In order to create a reaction between the two, the oils we use should be on the other side of the pH scale. This means these are called acidic ingredients. Now I hope the FDA definition of soap makes more sense.
So, what is a detergent? I couldn’t phrase it better than Harold Hopkins in an article published in February 1979 titled as “ALL THAT LATHERS IS NOT SOAP.”
If the bar you use for bathing does not claim to be a soap, it’s probably a synthetic detergent product. The FDA defines a cosmetic as an article intended to be used on the body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance; thus, a nonsoap product intended for any of these purposes is automatically classified as a cosmetic.
Soaps and synthetic detergent cleansing agents function in water in somewhat the same way; that is, they break down the resistance barrier between the water and the dirt, grime, oil, or other material, allowing it to be wetted and washed away. Soap works well in soft water, but in hard water, which contains a relatively high amount of calcium in solution, the calcium and soap react to form a gummy material called soap scum, which includes dirt and other matter. This gummy stuff is what forms the familiar ring in the bathtub.
The increasing number of synthetic detergent bars on the market is due largely to their more efficient functioning in water, regardless of hardness, and because they don’t form gummy deposits as does soap. There are many types of synthetic detergents, ranging from strong to mild; usually the milder types are used for personal cleansing. Some of the harsher detergents are capable of causing eye irritation or injury and manufacturers normally avoid using these in personal bathing bars. There are consumers who may experience irritation or allergic skin reactions from some synthetic detergents. Some consumers also may be allergic to fragrances, colors, or other substances added to either soaps or synthetic detergent bars.
Thank you Mr. Hopkins. You saved me from trying to rack my brains for a way to re-write this.
I also found another article published by the FDA in July of 2002 titled “Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (Or Is It Soap?)“. This article is another great resource for information about soap.
Soap is a category that needs special explanation. That’s because the regulatory definition of “soap” is different from the way in which people commonly use the word. Products that meet the definition of “soap” are exempt from the provisions of the FD&C Act because — even though Section 201(i)(1) of the act includes “articles…for cleansing” in the definition of a cosmetic — Section 201(i)(2) excludes soap from the definition of a cosmetic.
How FDA defines “soap”
Not every product marketed as soap meets FDA’s definition of the term. FDA interprets the term “soap” to apply only when –
- The bulk of the nonvolatile matter in the product consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and the product’s detergent properties are due to the alkali-fatty acid compounds, and
- The product is labeled, sold, and represented solely as soap [21 CFR 701.20].
If a cleanser does not meet all of these criteria…
If a product intended to cleanse the human body does not meet all the criteria for soap, as listed above, it is either a cosmetic or a drug. For example:
If a product —
- consists of detergents or
- primarily of alkali salts of fatty acids and
- is intended not only for cleansing but also for other cosmetic uses, such as beautifying or moisturizing,
it is regulated as a cosmetic.
If a product —
- consists of detergents or
- primarily of alkali salts of fatty acids and
- is intended not only for cleansing but also to cure, treat, or prevent disease or to affect the structure or any function of the human body,
it is regulated as a drug.
If a product —
- is intended solely for cleansing the human body and
- has the characteristics consumers generally associate with soap,
- does not consist primarily of alkali salts of fatty acids,
it may be identified in labeling as soap, but it is regulated as a cosmetic.
Now before you tell me that I “broke your brain”, let’s look at a product that can be found in the grocery store and is a combination of soap and detergent. Let’s take a look at the ingredients listing for a Dove White Moisturizing Beauty Bar.
Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate, Stearic Acid, Sodium Tallowate, Water, Sodium Isethionate, Coconut Acid, Sodium Stearate, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Sodium Cocoate or Sodium Palm Kernelate, Fragrance, Sodium Chloride, Titanium Dioxide, Tetrasodium EDTA, Trisodium Etidronate.
|Ingredient with INCI Name:||About the Ingredient:||Purpose of Ingredient:|
|Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate||Sodium Cocoyl Isethionate is an ingredient derived from coconut oil. It is usually found in the following forms; noodles, flakes, prills or even powder.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Stearic Acid||Stearic Acid is an ingredient that is derived from either animal tallow or various vegetable fats||This product is used as a secondary emulsifier, emollient and lubricant.|
|Sodium Tallowate||Sodium Tallowate is the salts of the fatty acids of Tallow. It is a soap and is used in the formulation of bath soaps and detergents.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Water||Water is primarily used as a solvent in cosmetics and personal care products in which it dissolves many of the ingredients that impart skin benefits, such as conditioning agents and cleansing agents.||Water is a solvent that is used to combine all the ingredients together.|
|Sodium Isethionate||Sodium Isethionate is a synthetic detergent. Technically it contains the following: Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-Hydroxy-, Monosodium Salt.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Coconut Acid||This is simply a derivative of Coconut Oil.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Sodium Stearate||Sodium Stearate is the salts of the fatty acids of Stearic Acid. It is a soap and is used in the formulation of bath soaps and detergents.||This product is used as a emulsion stabilizer and opacifying agent.|
|Cocamidopropyl Betaine||Cocamidopropyl Betaine is derived from coconut oil and dimethylaminopropylamine. It has some antiseptic properties which makes it popular for use in toiletries.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Sodium Cocoate or Sodium Palm Kernelate||Sodium Cocoate is the salts of the fatty acids of Coconut Oil. Sodium Palm Kernelate is the salts of the fatty acids of Palm Kernel Oil. Both are soaps and are used in the formulation of bath soaps and detergents.||This product is used as a surfactant*.|
|Fragrance||Fragrances are used in a wide variety of products to impart odor or to mask the odor of another ingredient used in the formulation of a product.||This product is used as an additive.|
|Sodium Chloride||This is regular table salt.||This product is used to precipitate the soap.|
|Titanium Dioxide||Titanium Dioxide is the oxide of titanium||This product is used as an opacifying agent and a colorant.|
|Tetrasodium EDTA||Tetrasodium Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid is a salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (Edetic Acid). Tetrasodium EDTA has the ability to bind with and inactivate metallic ions to prevent their adverse effects on the stability or appearance of cosmetic products. It was originally developed to counteract the effects of hard water and heavy metal ions in the manufacture of textiles.||This product is used as a sequestering agent, has the ability to bind with and inactivate metallic ions to prevent their adverse effects on the stability or appearance of cosmetic products.|
|Trisodium Etidronate||Trisodium Etidronate is a double duty ingredient, it works as a water softener as well as a preservative||This product is used as a preservative and water softener.|
*What is a surfactant? A surfactant is a cleansing agent that are used for either cleaning the skin and/or hair as well as emulsifiers in products. So to put it basically, surfactants make water wetter, emulsify or solubulize body oils and suspend dirt and grime. Most surfactants also add foaming and lathering characteristics to products containing them.
Wow! I don’t know about you, but my brain is starting to hurt a little. I do understand more about the difference between soaps and detergents. Do you?
|Recently, I was asked to show how to make a batch of liquid soap that was a 100% Olive Oil batch. This batch of soap was easy to make, but definitely a learning experience during the dilution phase!
Collect needed items:
To begin making my liquid soap, I weighed and poured my Olive Oil into the crock pot. I turned the crock pot on and waited for the oil to heat. My desired temperature is around 160° F. This temperature does not need to be precise. This took about 10 minutes to heat the oil to 157° F. As this is close enough, I weighed the Potassium Hydroxide and then added it to my water. I’ve made three other batches of liquid soap, so this time the boiling sound did not bother me. Once the Potassium Hydroxide solution was completely mixed, I added it to the oil in the crock pot. Don’t forget to pour in a slow and steady stream to help prevent splashing oil or clumping of the ingredients.
I used the immersion blender and began mixing to combine the Potassium Hydroxide solution and oils. It will take a longer time to mix together because Olive Oil takes a long time to saponify. It actually took about 20 minutes before the soap reached to cottage cheese stage! I would switch my motor for the immersion blender out with another motor to prevent myself from frying the motor. I probably switched between the two motors every 5 minutes.
After the soap finally reached the cottage cheese stage, it still took another 30 minutes just to finally reach that thick & sticky stage that is called the “sticky, saltwater taffy” stage. I could no longer use the immersion blender as the soap was so thick. I grabbed the whisk attachment for the blender, switched out the blending blade for the whisk and continued to mix the soap.
This batch of soap was behaving much more slowly than the other batches that I have made so far. Another indicator was that the soap never puffed, which I was ok with. I don’t like worrying if my soap is going to overflow! I continued cooking the soap and stirring every 20 minutes. I remained in the blog kitchen working on other projects so I could keep an eye out for any problems with the soap.
After 3 hours of stirring the soap every 20 minutes, the soap still had an off-white appearance with some translucent spots. Since it was the end of the work day, I took the crock pot home with me. I continued to cook the soap for another hour I stirred the soap every 20 minutes. After that additional hour of cooking, I the soap was completely translucent. When the soap reached this translucent stage, I boiled 2 ounces of water and added 1 oz of soap to the water. After stirring until the soap was completely dissolved, I allowed the soap sample to cool. Yippee! The sample was completely clear.
I turned off the crock pot and allowed to soap to cool completely in the pot. The next morning, I took the soap back to work and dumped it into a large pot for dilution. I added 64 ounces of tap water to the pot and cooked the soap for 1 hour on low heat to allow the soap to dilute slowly. After 1 hour of cooking, there were still clumps of soap, so I added another 32 ounces of tap water. I cooked the soap for another hour and finally the soap was completely diluted. I poured the soap into a 2 gallon pail to cool and covered it. Then I cleaned all of the remaining tools and pots.
I left the pail sitting on the counter overnight and when I came back the next morning, I was VERY surprised to find my soap had become a thick gel that was like in rubber cement in consistency. Ack! What did I do wrong? I asked our Technical Support team and they asked me what water I had used for dilution. Ahh, there was my problem. I used tap water and since we have a water softener, there was a higher salt content to the water. This caused the soap to thicken so much. I asked if it was possible to fix my soap or if I had really messed up. Luckily, I was told that I could dilute the soap gel with either distilled water or reverse osmosis water and have a fluid soap again.
I pulled out my clean pot and scraped the soap gel into the pot and added 32 ounces of reverse osmosis water to dilute the soap. I cooked the soap for 1 hour on low heat to allow the soap to dilute slowly. After 1 hour of cooking, there were still clumps of soap, so I added another 32 ounces of reverse osmosis water. I cooked the soap for another hour and finally the soap was completely diluted. I poured the diluted soap in a clean 2 gallon bucket and covered the bucket. The next day, I checked on the soap and was so excited to find that it was still liquid.
The Olive Oil Liquid Soap samples have been sent to the Shipping Department to send out in orders. I’m excited to say I have approximately 80 samples of this liquid soap! I would love to hear your comments about this liquid soap. I hope that anyone wanting a sample soap will request one with their order and if we have any samples we will send them to you.
I hope you have found this post to be entertaining as well as educational. Stay tuned for some great upcoming posts including a special bar soap for a special person, lotions that are perfect for the spring weather and even some food recipes!
|Okay, I will admit it. I LOVE spring. I spend all of my time making spring themed products and I bake up a storm. I was browsing through one of my favorite baking books when I ran across an interesting recipe. Lemon Poppy Seed Cookies. Well, that just caused the gears in my brain to whir. I decided to make Lemon Poppy Seed Cookie soaps. Just looking at these soaps made me hungry!
These were so much fun to make. When I finally got my soap unmolded, I danced around the kitchen shrieking with delight. They smelled great, looked fabulous and it was just what I had imagined! (Don’t you like it when things work out that way?) Come join me in the kitchen so we can giggle and laugh. You never know who might come in and say “Are you making soap? That’s cool. Can I have one of those cookies? I am hungry.” Let’s go to the kitchen to make these fresh smelling soaps. What a great spring soap!
Collect Needed Items:
Heat oils gently until liquid. Prepare lye solution by mixing the lye and water together carefully. Do this in a well vented area. Prepare the mold by coating the inside with Vaseline or Mineral Oil. Pour the lye solution into the soap bucket with the warm oils. Mix using an immersion blender until trace is reached. Add the Lemon Essential Oil, Poppy Seeds and Yellow Lip Balm Color. Mix well. Carefully pour the soap into mold. Allow to sit for 24 hours. Remove soap from mold and cut. Allow the soap to cure. Longer curing time will result in a harder bar.
I had a great time making this soap. After I added the essential oil, the soap looked and smelled so good I wanted to lick the spoon! It is a good thing I am making cookies on Friday. When adding the poppy seeds and essential oil, I added a drop of the Yellow Lip Balm Color. This was because I didn’t want a white or even possibly gray soap. I didn’t want the soap to be lemon yellow either. I wanted them to be the light yellow color of the cookies we will be making on Friday.
I did have a bit of a whoops. My temperatures were too hot when I made the soap. It volcanoed out of the mold and onto the floor! Andee was very distressed at the disaster I created in the kitchen. Sorry, Andee! Well, now the floor is squeaky clean. Next time I make a large batch of soap, I will let the temperature come down more. Even so, my soap turned out fine. I have about 75 samples that I sent to Shipping. I don’t expect them to last past the 21st. Request yours today!
|Recently we were asked if Titanium Dioxide would color a soap white if one used dark colored oils. Since I don’t have many dark oils, I decided to make 5 different batches of soap with Neem Oil to show how using Titanium Dioxide can lighten the color, but not make a white soap. This post is a collection of all these soaps and the differences that appear in the finished soap.
Collect needed items:
I started by mixing the Titanium Dioxide into 1 ounce of the water and allowing it to completely hydrate. I did not want any specks of white color since that would mean I did not have an accurate test. I allowed the hydrating Titanium Dioxide sit for 30 minutes before I started weighing any other materials.
After the Titanium Dioxide mixtures had been sitting for 30 minutes, I began to measure the fixed oils on the scale. You can choose to warm your oils on the stove or in the microwave. I melted the fixed oils in the microwave. It took about 2 minutes in my microwave to melt all of the oils.
As the oils were melting in the microwave, I added sodium hydroxide remaining water. Mix well. Combine the fixed oils and lye solution. Stir until thin trace. For me, this took just 60 seconds for batches 1 & 2, but batches 3, 4 & 5 took only 40 seconds to reach trace. After the soap reached trace, I added the Titanium Dioxide mixture and mixed well. I added the color and stirred to mix the raw soap and color. At this time, the soap accelerated like nothing else I’ve ever seen. I ended up actually plopping the soap into the molds rather than pouring. I allowed the soap to sit until was firm.
The next morning the soap was cut into bars. Stack to allow good air circulation. Allow to cure for several days before using. Longer curing will result in a harder bar.
The comparison photo shows the following soaps from left to right: Batch 1, Batch 2, Batch 3, Batch 4, and Batch 5. As you can see, batch 5 is the lightest colored soap but it is still not pure white.
As the comparison photo shows, the addition of Titanium Dioxide will help lighten the soaps, but you will not get a pure white soap when using dark colored oils like Neem Oil. If you would like to have a white soap, I would recommend using oils that contribute a light or white color to soap in combination with Titanium Dioxide. These would be oils that are light colored in their original form. Colorless Jojoba, Lard, Soybean Oil, Coconut Oil, and Almond Oil are some oils that I would recommend for such a soap.
|I am thrilled to announce that I have a new mold! Yea! This is a fairly simple mold that one of the guys in the warehouse put together for me. What did he do? Well, he went to the hardware store and got a 2′ section of pre-cut PVC pipe in 3″ diameter. He also got an end cap. He also got one that it that is 2′ long and 2″ in diameter to use as a plunger. How cool is that?
I coated the end of the tube and inside of the cap with Vaseline. I did this because I want to be able to remove the cap and get my soap out. Work the end cap on and off a few times so it won’t stick. Also, don’t store the mold with the end cap on. It makes it harder to get off. So far so good. Remember to use a non-saponifiable oil to coat the inside of the mold. You don’t want your mold to have a one time use!
Monday, I am going to test my mold for the first time. Don’t miss out! This is going to be an experience… and an experiment. See you there!
|I received a question in my email that I just had to answer. I was asked if the virgin coconut oil was used in soap, would the scent remain. I honestly had no idea. I hoped so. I love the smell of the virgin coconut oil. It is dreamy. It brings to mind the warm sun and sandy beaches and rolling waves. Mmm. How peaceful. Let’s head to the test kitchen to find if the fabulous scent sticks. Here we go!
Collect Needed Materials:
Pour the lye into the water. Stir well. Avoid the fumes coming off from the container. Weigh the oils into a microwave safe container. Heat gently until liquid. Slowly pour the lye solution into the oils. Using an immersion blender, mix well. Once trace has been reached, pour into a mold and allow to sit for 24 hours. Cut the soap and allow the bars to cure. Longer curing time will result in a harder bar.
Notes: After I cut the bars, I smelled them to see if I could detect any of the coconut notes from the virgin coconut oil. Alas, there is no scent. It seems the the Virgin Coconut Oil is best put to use in lip balms, body butters and lotions.
|I really enjoy spring. The flowers coming up, the birds singing, and the bright gentle rays of golden sun in the morning. I love mornings like that. Right now, the ground is covered with snow and what I truly miss is the brown earth. While I may not be able to see the dirt, I can make my own dirt soap. I just can’t wait to get dirty. (Is it just me or is there irony in a Dirt Soap? Dirt = Dirty, Messy. Soap = Squeaky Clean) Excited for spring? Come join me as we bring a little bit of Earth into our own homes.
Collect needed items:
Heat your oils gently until liquid. Mix lye into six ounces of water. Slowly pour lye solution into oils in the soap bucket. Using an immersion blender, mix until trace in reached. Add fragrance and color. I added about a tablespoon of mixed color. Mix well. Pour soap into mold. Allow to sit for 24 hours. Remove from mold and cut. Stack the bars to allow the soap to cure. Longer curing time will result in a harder bar. Enjoy and thank for joining me in the test kitchen!
Note: The premixed color was made by adding 2 oz of Brown Oxide to 16 oz Glycerin.